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Ashoka Pillar, Qutub Minar Complex, New Delhi

Ashoka Pillar, Qutub Minar Complex, New Delhi
Made by Mukul Banerjee (www.mukulbanerjee.com)
The iron pillar of Delhi, India is a 7 meter (22 feet) high pillar in the Qutb complex which is notable for the composition of the metals used in its construction. The pillar, which weighs more than six tons, is said to have been fashioned at the time of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413),[1] though other authorities give dates as early as 912 BCE.[2] The pillar initially stood in the centre of a Jain temple complex housing twenty-seven temples that were destroyed by Qutb-ud-din Aybak, and their material was used in building the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque.[3] The pillar and ruins of the temple stand all around the Qutb complex today. The pillar is 98% pure wrought iron, and is a testament to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian ironsmiths. It has attracted the attention of both archaeologists and metallurgists, as it has withstood corrosion for over 1,600 years in the open air.[4] The name of the city of Delhi is thought to be based on a legend associated with the pillar The pillar, almost seven meters high and weighing more than six tons, was erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375 CE–414 CE), (interpretation based on analysis of archer type Gupta gold coins) of the Gupta dynasty that ruled northern India 320–540.[5] The pillar with the statue of Chakra at the top was originally located at a place called Vishnupadagiri (meaning “hill with footprint of Lord Vishnu”).[6] This has been identified as modern Udayagiri, situated in the vicinity of Besnagar, Vidisha and Sanchi. These towns are located about 50 kilometres east of Bhopal, in central India. There are several aspects to the original site of the pillar at Udayagiri. Vishnupadagiri is located on the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, was a centre of astronomical studies during the Gupta period. The Iron Pillar served as a sundial when it was originally at Vishnupadagiri. The early morning shadow of the Iron Pillar fell in the direction of the foot of Anantasayin Vishnu (in one of the panels at Udayagiri) only around the summer solstice (June 21). The Udayagiri site in general, and the Iron Pillar location in particular, are evidence for the astronomical knowledge that existed in Gupta India. The pillar bears a Sanskrit inscription in Brahmi script[7] which states that it was erected as a standard in honour of Lord Vishnu. It also praises the valor and qualities of a king referred to simply as Chandra, who has been identified with the Gupta King Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375-413). The inscription reads (in the translation given in the tablets erected by Pandit Banke Rai in 1903): He, on whose arm fame was inscribed by the sword, when, in battle in the Vanga countries (Bengal), he kneaded (and turned) back with (his) breast the enemies who, uniting together, came against (him);-he, by whom, having crossed in warfare the seven mouths of the (river) Sindhu, the Vahlikas were conquered;-he, by the breezes of whose prowess the southern ocean is even still perfumed;- (Line 3.)-He, the remnant of the great zeal of whose energy, which utterly destroyed (his) enemies, like (the remnant of the great glowing heat) of a burned-out fire in a great forest, even now leaves not the earth; though he, the king, as if wearied, has quit this earth, and has gone to the other world, moving in (bodily) from to the land (of paradise) won by (the merit of his) actions, (but) remaining on (this) earth by (the memory of his) fame;- (L. 5.)-By him, the king,-who attained sole supreme sovereignty in the world, acquired by his own arm and (enjoyed) for a very long time; (and) who, having the name of Chandra, carried a beauty of countenance like (the beauty of) the full-moon,-having in faith fixed his mind upon (the god) Vishnu, this lofty standard of the divine Vishnu was set up on the hill (called) Vishnupada. It is believed by some that the pillar was installed in its current location by Vigraha Raja, the ruling Rajput Tomar king.[8] One of the inscriptions on the iron pillar from A.D. 1052 mentions Rajput king Anangpal II.[9] Made up of 98% pure wrought iron, it is 7.21m (23 feet 8 inches) high, with 93 cm (36.6 inches) buried below the present floor level,[10] and has a diameter of 41 cm (16 inches) at the bottom which tapers towards the upper end. The pillar was manufactured by forge welding. The temperatures required to form such a pillar by forge welding could only have been achieved by the combustion of coal.[citation needed] The pillar is a testament to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron. A fence was erected around the pillar in 1997 in response to damage caused by visitors. There is a popular tradition that it was considered good luck if you could stand with your back to the pillar and make your hands meet behind it.

Iron Pillar at Qutub Minar

Iron Pillar at Qutub Minar
Made by Swami Stream
The interesting thing about the pillar is its not rusted for so many year . The Delhi iron pillar is testimony to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron. The iron pillar at Delhi has attracted the attention of archaeologists and corrosion technologists as it has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 years. The several theories which have been proposed to explain its superior corrosion resistance can be broadly classified into two categories: the environmental and the material theories. Proponents of the environmental theories state that the mild climate of Delhi is responsible for the corrosion resistance of the Delhi iron pillar. It is known that the relative humidity at Delhi does not exceed 70% for significant periods of time in the year, which therefore results in very mild corrosion of the pillar. On the other hand, several investigators have stressed the importance of the material of construction as the primary cause for the pillar's corrosion resistance. The ideas proposed in this regard are the relatively pure composition of the iron used, presence of Phosphorus (P) and absence of Sulphur/Magnesium in the iron, its slag-enveloped metal grain structure, and passivity enhancement in the presence of slag particles. Other theories to explain the corrosion resistance are also to be found in the literature like the mass metal effect, initial exposure to an alkaline and ammoniacal environment, residual stresses resulting from the surface finishing operation, freedom from sulphur contamination both in the metal and in the air, and surface coatings provided to the pillar after manufacture (barffing and slag coating) and during use (coating with clarified butter). That the material of construction may be the important factor in determining the corrosion resistance of ancient Indian iron is attested by the presence of ancient massive iron objects located in areas where the relative humidity is high for significant periods in the year (for example, the iron beams in the Surya temple at Konarak in coastal Orissa and the iron pillar at Mookambika temple at Kollur situated in the Kodachadri Hills on the western coast). It is, therefore, obvious that the ancient Indians, especially from the time of the Guptas (300-500 AD), produced iron that was capable of withstanding corrosion. This is primarily due to the high P content of the iron produced during these times. The addition of P was intentional as iron produced during earlier times does not show the presence of P. To understand the precise reason for the corrosion resistance of the Delhi iron pillar, we analysed the composition of the rust on a Gupta period corrosion resistant iron clamp and also the rust on the Delhi iron pillar. Archaeometallurgical studies form a small component of our research activities. It is clear that referring to the Delhi iron pillar as rust-less is misleading as the iron pillar derives its corrosion resistance from the passive surface film (i.e. rust) that forms on the surface. We undertook a detailed rust analysis using modern sophisticated characterization techniques like Mössbauer spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). We summarize below some of the exciting results of our study. The present study also provides valuable insight into the corrosion resistance of steels. More details www.iitk.ac.in/infocell/Archive/dirnov1/iron_pillar.html

Iron Pillar

Iron Pillar
Made by Victor Radziun
Iron Pillar and Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque. Delhi, India. The iron pillar is one of the world’s foremost metallurgical curiosities. The pillar, almost seven metres high and weighing more than six tonnes, was erected by Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–414 CE), (interpretation based on careful analysis of archer type Gupta gold coins) of the Gupta dynasty that ruled northern India 320–540. The pillar, with an idol of Garuda at the top, was originally located at a place called Vishnupadagiri (meaning «Vishnu-footprint-hill»), identified as modern Udayagiri, situated in the close vicinity of Besnagar, Vidisha and Sanchi, towns located about 50 kilometres east of Bhopal, in central India. Vishnupadagiri is located on the Tropic of Cancer and, therefore, was a centre of astronomical studies during the Gupta period. The Iron Pillar served an important astronomical function, in its original site; its early morning shadow fell in the direction of the foot of Anantasayain Vishnu (in one of the panels at Udayagiri) only in the time around summer solstice (June 21). The creation and development of the Udayagiri site appears to have been clearly guided by a highly developed astronomical knowledge. Therefore, the Udayagiri site, in general, and the Iron Pillar location in particular, provide firm evidence for the astronomical knowledge in India around 400 CE. It is the only piece of the Hindu temple remaining, which stood there before being destroyed by Qutb-ud-din Aybak to build the Qutab Minar and Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. Qutab built around it when he constructed the mosque. The pillar bears an inscription which states that it was erected as a flagstaff in honour of the Hindu god, Vishnu, and in the memory of the Gupta King Chandragupta II (375–413). Made up of 98% wrought iron of pure quality, it is 7.21 m high and has a diameter of 0.41 m. Also, it was confirmed that the temperatures required to form such kind of pillars cannot be achieved by combustion of coal. The pillar is a testament to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian iron smiths in the extraction and processing of iron. It has attracted the attention of archaeologists and metallurgists as it has withstood corrosion for the last 1600 years, despite harsh weather. Its unusually good corrosion resistance appears to be due to a high phosphorus content, which together with favorable local weather conditions promotes the formation of a solid protective passivation layer of iron oxides and phosphates, rather than the non-protective, cracked rust layer that develops on most ironwork. A fence was erected around the pillar due to the popularity of a tradition that considered good luck if you could stand with your back to the pillar and make your hands meet behind it.

India New Delhi _D7C2034

India New Delhi _D7C2034
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the , which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times. The foundation of the Delhi Masjid Jame, the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, ('Refuge of Islam') was laid by Qutub-ud-din Aibak in 1193 on the site of Lal Kot Fort. An inscription on the eastern gateway confirms that 27 Jainist temples were destroyed for the construction of the complex, with complete columns being transplanted into the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. This type of iconoclasm is not unique in Indian history, and while the continuous destruction/construction cycle might be seenas religion inspired, it more usually served political motives, as recently occurred in 1992 with the Babri Mosque. Construction and expansion of the mosque continued under the third Sultan, Iltutmish, who replaced the original Hindu masons with Muslim masons which resulted in the addition of Islamic arches to the ones dating back to Qutub's rule. The mosque's ruins that remain today still show the finely detailed masonry and the mix of Hindu figures and Muslim floral forms. The massive base of the Qutub Minar, on the left in this photo, is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five stage minaret was ordered in 1193 by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak, to exceed the Jam Minaret in Afghanistan, but during his lifetime only the 14.3 meter wide base was completed. The third Sultan, Iltutmish completed the middle three levels, and by 1368 Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq added the fifth level, measuring 2.75 metres diagonally and completing the Minaret to reach 72 metres high. The entire structure is built with of red sandstone bricks with some likely to have been re-used from the ruins of Lal Kot, or the Red Citadel which stood here in the 6th century in the time of the last Chauhan Hindi rulers of Delhi. There are 379 steps leading to the topmost fifth level and each of the levels is separated by a muqarna or stalactite corbel, decorated by Cufic inscriptions from the Koran. Apart from being the most prominent, the Qutub Minar is also probably the best surviving example of the earliest Indo-Islamic architecture. The Alai Gate, visible behind the collonade, is a domed gateway that functions as the entrance to the Qutub complex was constructed by Ala-ud din Khilji, the first Khilji Sultan of Delhi in 1290. The dominating red engraved sandstone is refined with inlaid white marble, also finely detailed by Turkish craftsmen.

India New Delhi _D7C2025

India New Delhi _D7C2025
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
Details of Jainist stone carvings inside the remains of the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the , which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times. The foundation of the Delhi Masjid Jame, the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, ('Refuge of Islam') was laid by Qutub-ud-din Aibak in 1193 on the site of Lal Kot Fort. An inscription on the eastern gateway confirms that 27 Jainist temples were destroyed for the construction of the complex, with complete columns being transplanted into the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. This type of iconoclasm is not unique in Indian history, and while the continuous destruction/construction cycle might be seenas religion inspired, it more usually served political motives, as recently occurred in 1992 with the Babri Mosque. Construction and expansion of the mosque continued under the third Sultan, Iltutmish, who replaced the original Hindu masons with Muslim masons which resulted in the addition of Islamic arches to the ones dating back to Qutub's rule. The mosque's ruins that remain today still show the finely detailed masonry and the mix of Hindu figures and Muslim floral forms. Qutub Minar, in the background, is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five stage minaret was ordered in 1193 by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak, to exceed the Jam Minaret in Afghanistan, but during his lifetime only the 14.3 meter wide base was completed. The third Sultan, Iltutmish completed the middle three levels, and by 1368 Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq added the fifth level, measuring 2.75 metres diagonally and completing the Minaret to reach 72 metres high. The entire structure is built with of red sandstone bricks with some likely to have been re-used from the ruins of Lal Kot, or the Red Citadel which stood here in the 6th century in the time of the last Chauhan Hindi rulers of Delhi. There are 379 steps leading to the topmost fifth level and each of the levels is separated by a muqarna or stalactite corbel, decorated by Cufic inscriptions from the Koran. Apart from being the most prominent, the Qutub Minar is also probably the best surviving example of the earliest Indo-Islamic architecture. When I saw this shot in the viewfinder the DoF already blew me away, when I looked at it on the display after releasing the shutter I realised just how much detail the combination of the Nikon D700 and 24-70mm f/2.8 can resolve... #452 on Flickr's Explore

Iron Pillar Panorama

Iron Pillar Panorama
Made by Swami Stream
The iron pillar of Delhi, India is a 7 meter (22 feet) high pillar next to the Qutub Minar. The pillar was apparently erected at the time of Chandragupta II and is a curiosity because of the composition of the metals used in its construction. The pillar—almost seven meters (22 feet) high and weighing more than six tons—was allegedly erected at the time of Chandragupta II Vikramaditya (375–413), though other authorities give dates as early as 912 BCE. It is the only remaining piece of a Hindu and Jain temple complex which stood there before being destroyed by Qutb-ud-din Aybak who built around it when he constructed the Qutub Minar and Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque. The pillar is 98% wrought iron of pure quality, and is a testament to the high level of skill achieved by ancient Indian ironsmiths. It has attracted the attention of both archaeologists and metallurgists, as it has withstood corrosion for 1600 years, despite harsh weather The inscription reads (in the translation given in the tablets erected by Pandit Banke Rai in 1903): He, on whose arm fame was inscribed by the sword, when, in battle in the Vanga countries (Bângal), he kneaded (and turned) back with (his) breast the enemies who, uniting together, came against (him);-he, by whom, having crossed in warfare the seven mouths of the (river) Sindhu, the Vâhlikas were conquered;-he, by the breezes of whose prowess the southern ocean is even still perfumed;- (Line 3.)-He, the remnant of the great zeal of whose energy, which utterly destroyed (his) enemies, like (the remnant of the great glowing heat) of a burned-out fire in a great forest, even now leaves not the earth; though he, the king, as if wearied, has quit this earth, and has gone to the other world, moving in (bodily) from to the land (of paradise) won by (the merit of his) actions, (but) remaining on (this) earth by (the memory of his) fame;- (L. 5.)-By him, the king,-who attained sole supreme sovereignty in the world, acquired by his own arm and (enjoyed) for a very long time; (and) who, having the name of Chandra, carried a beauty of countenance like (the beauty of) the full-moon,-having in faith fixed his mind upon (the god) Vishnu, this lofty standard of the divine Vishnu was set up on the hill (called) Vishnupada. More at en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iron_pillar_of_Delhi

India New Delhi _D7C2032

India New Delhi _D7C2032
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the , which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times. The foundation of the Delhi Masjid Jame, the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, ('Refuge of Islam') was laid by Qutub-ud-din Aibak in 1193 on the site of Lal Kot Fort. An inscription on the eastern gateway confirms that 27 Jainist temples were destroyed for the construction of the complex, with complete columns being transplanted into the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. This type of iconoclasm is not unique in Indian history, and while the continuous destruction/construction cycle might be seenas religion inspired, it more usually served political motives, as recently occurred in 1992 with the Babri Mosque. Construction and expansion of the mosque continued under the third Sultan, Iltutmish, who replaced the original Hindu masons with Muslim masons which resulted in the addition of Islamic arches to the ones dating back to Qutub's rule. The mosque's ruins that remain today still show the finely detailed masonry and the mix of Hindu figures and Muslim floral forms. Qutub Minar, behind the Alai Gate, is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five stage minaret was ordered in 1193 by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak, to exceed the Jam Minaret in Afghanistan, but during his lifetime only the 14.3 meter wide base was completed. The third Sultan, Iltutmish completed the middle three levels, and by 1368 Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq added the fifth level, measuring 2.75 metres diagonally and completing the Minaret to reach 72 metres high. The entire structure is built with of red sandstone bricks with some likely to have been re-used from the ruins of Lal Kot, or the Red Citadel which stood here in the 6th century in the time of the last Chauhan Hindi rulers of Delhi. There are 379 steps leading to the topmost fifth level and each of the levels is separated by a muqarna or stalactite corbel, decorated by Cufic inscriptions from the Koran. Apart from being the most prominent, the Qutub Minar is also probably the best surviving example of the earliest Indo-Islamic architecture.

Qutub Minar

Qutub Minar
Made by Swami Stream
Continuing with my old photos which I have not posted since I have not had the time to take any new. Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, commenced construction of the Qutb Minar in 1193, but could only complete its base. His successor, Iltutmish, added three more stories and, in 1386, Firuz Shah Tughluq constructed the fifth and the last story. The development of architectural styles from Aibak to Tughluq are quite evident in the minaret. Like earlier towers erected by the Ghaznavids and Ghurids in Afghanistan, the Qutb Minar comprises several superposed flanged and cylindrical shafts, separated by balconies carried on Muqarnas corbels. The minaret is made of fluted red sandstone covered with intricate carvings and verses from the Qur'an. The Qutb Minar is itself built on the ruins of Lal Kot, the Red Citadel in the city of Dhillika, the capital of the Tomars and the Chauhans, the last Hindu rulers of Delhi. The purpose for building this monument has been variously speculated upon. It could take the usual role of a minaret, calling people for prayer in the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque, the earliest extant mosque built by the Delhi Sultans. Other possibilities are a tower of victory, a monument signifying the might of Islam, or a watch tower for defense. Controversy also surrounds the origins for the name of the tower. Many historians believe that the Qutb Minar was named after the first Turkish sultan, Qutb-ud-din Aibak but others contend that it was named in honour of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, a saint from Baghdad who came to live in India and was greatly venerated by Iltutmish. The nearby Iron Pillar is one of the world's foremost metallurgical curiosities, standing in the famous Qutb complex. According to the traditional belief, anyone who can encircle the entire column with their arms, with their back towards the pillar, can have their wish granted. Because of the corrosive qualities of sweat the government has built a fence around it for safety.

Kirpan

Kirpan
Made by DocBudie [ busy :(
Incredible India : a Photographic Tour 2010 2nd Day ~ New Delhi Qutub Minar There is a dress like sikh and long beards carrying daggers, I assumed he was also the security officer. But it was not. He's just like me who just a tourist. After a few minutes we were talking about the dagger called Kirpan, then he gave me permission to photograph a Kirpan which he always held. The Kirpan is a punjabi typical sword or dagger carried by many Sikhs. According to a mandatory religious commandment given by Guru Gobind Singh in CE 1699 (a holy religious ceremony that formally baptizes a Sikh), all baptised Sikhs (Khalsa) must wear a kirpan at all times. The Kirpan is carried in a sheath attached to a cloth belt. It is normally worn discreetly under clothes and most people would be unaware that a person was carrying one. Perhaps with this consideration, the government let them go anywhere with a dagger in hand, except for certain conditions such as in flight. ---- Ada seorang berpakaian seperti singh dan berjanggut panjang yang membawa belati, saya mengiranya dia juga petugas keamanan. ternyata bukan. Dia sama seperti saya yang hanya seorang turis. Setelah beberapa menit kami saling berbicara mengenai belatinya yang disebut Kirpan, lalu dia memberi ijin kepada saya untuk memotret Kirpan yang selalu ia pegang. Kirpan adalah pedang khas punjabi atau belati yang dibawa oleh kebanyakan kaum Sikh. Menurut sebuah perintah wajib agama yang diberikan oleh Guru Gobind Singh di tahun 1699 (upacara suci keagamaan yang secara formal membaptis seorang Sikh), semua Sikh (Khalsa) yang telah di baptis harus memakai Kirpan setiap saat. Kirpan disimpan dalam sebuah selubung yang diselempangkan pada badan. Hal ini biasanya dikenakan secara tersembunyi di balik pakaian dan kebanyakan orang baru akan menyadari bahwa setiap orang membawa satu Kirpan. Mungkin dengan pertimbangan ini maka pemerintah membiarkan kaum Singh pergi kemana-mana dengan belati ditangan, kecuali untuk kondisi tertentu seperti di dalam penerbangan.

Qutub Minar

Qutub Minar
Made by Swami Stream
A shot from my archives Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, commenced construction of the Qutb Minar in 1193, but could only complete its base. His successor, Iltutmish, added three more stories and, in 1386, Firuz Shah Tughluq constructed the fifth and the last story. The development of architectural styles from Aibak to Tughluq are quite evident in the minaret. Like earlier towers erected by the Ghaznavids and Ghurids in Afghanistan, the Qutb Minar comprises several superposed flanged and cylindrical shafts, separated by balconies carried on Muqarnas corbels. The minaret is made of fluted red sandstone covered with intricate carvings and verses from the Qur'an. The Qutb Minar is itself built on the ruins of Lal Kot, the Red Citadel in the city of Dhillika, the capital of the Tomars and the Chauhans, the last Hindu rulers of Delhi. The purpose for building this monument has been variously speculated upon. It could take the usual role of a minaret, calling people for prayer in the Quwwat-ul-Islam mosque, the earliest extant mosque built by the Delhi Sultans. Other possibilities are a tower of victory, a monument signifying the might of Islam, or a watch tower for defense. Controversy also surrounds the origins for the name of the tower. Many historians believe that the Qutb Minar was named after the first Turkish sultan, Qutb-ud-din Aibak but others contend that it was named in honour of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, a saint from Baghdad who came to live in India and was greatly venerated by Iltutmish. The nearby Iron Pillar is one of the world's foremost metallurgical curiosities, standing in the famous Qutb complex. According to the traditional belief, anyone who can encircle the entire column with their arms, with their back towards the pillar, can have their wish granted. Because of the corrosive qualities of sweat the government has built a fence around it for safety.

Qutub Minar from archives

Qutub Minar from archives
Made by Swami Stream
Qutub Minar (Urdu: قطب منار), a tower in Delhi, India, is the world's tallest brick minaret.[2] Construction commenced in 1193 under the orders of India's first Muslim ruler Qutb-ud-din Aibak, and the topmost storey of the minaret was completed in 1386 by Firuz Shah Tughluq. The Qutab Minar is notable for being one of the earliest and most prominent examples of Indo-Islamic architecture. It is surrounded by several other ancient and medieval structures and ruins, collectively known as Qutub complex. The complex is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Delhi. Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, commenced construction of the Qutub Minar in 1193, but could only complete its base. His successor, Iltutmish, added three more storeys and, in 1368, Firuz Shah Tughluq constructed the fifth and the last storey. The Qutub Minar is itself built on the ruins of Lal Kot, the Red Citadel in the city of Dhillika, the capital of the Tomars and the Chauhans, the last Hindu rulers of Delhi. Controversy also surrounds the origins for the name of the tower. Many historians believe that the Qutub Minar was named after the first Turkish sultan, Qutb-ud-din Aibak but others contend that it was named in honour of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, a saint from Baghdad who came to live in India and was greatly venerated by Iltutmish. More on en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qutub_Minar utab Minar going the way of the Leaning Tower of Pisa? Experts are understood to have expressed concern that the monument, which Qutab Minar already has a tilt of 25 inches to the southwest, is in danger of leaning further in that direction due to a weak foundation being further weakened by rainwater seepage. More on economictimes.indiatimes.com/News/PoliticsNation/Qutab_Mi...

Special and golden

Special and golden
Made by xxxrmt
Phyllis at the Qutb Minar complex, Delhi. The Qutb complex (Hindi: क़ुतुब परिसर, Urdu: قطب پرِسر), also spelled Qutab or Qutub, is an array of monuments and buildings at Mehrauli in Delhi, India. After the death of the commissioner, the Minar was added upon by his successor Iltutmish (aka Altamash) and much later by Firoz Shah Tughlaq, a Tughlaq dynasty, Sultan of Delhi in 1368 AD. The complex initially housed a complex of twenty-seven ancient Jain temples which were destroyed and their material used in the construction of the Quwwat-ul-Islam Mosque next to the Qutb Minar, in the Qutb complex, built on the ruins of Lal Kot Fort built by Tomar Rajput ruler, Anangpal in 739 AD and Qila-Rai-Pithora, Prithviraj Chauhan's city, the Rajput king, whom Ghori's Afghan armies had earlier defeated and killed, at the Second Battle of Tarain. The complex was added to by many subsequent rulers, including Firoz Shah Tughlaq and Ala ud din Khilji as well as the British. Some constructions in the complex are the Qutb Minar, the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, the Alai Gate, the Alai Minar, the Iron pillar, and the tombs of Iltutmish, Alauddin Khilji and Imam Zamin; surrounded by Jain temple ruins. Today, the adjoining area spread over with a host of old monuments, including Balban's tomb, has been developed by Archeological Survey of India (ASI) as the Mehrauli Archeological Park, and INTACH has restored some 40 monuments in the Park. It is also the venue of the annual 'Qutub Festival', held in November–December, where artists, musicians and dancers perform over three days. Qutb Minar complex, with 38.95 lakh visitors, was India's most visited monument in 2006, ahead of the Taj Mahal, which drew about 25.4 lakh visitors.

Qutub Minar in Sepia

Qutub Minar in Sepia
Made by Swami Stream
You can see a lot of planes flying past this monument as the IGI Airport is very close Qutub Minar (Urdu: قطب منار), a tower in Delhi, India, is the world's tallest brick minaret.[2] Construction commenced in 1193 under the orders of India's first Muslim ruler Qutb-ud-din Aibak, and the topmost storey of the minaret was completed in 1386 by Firuz Shah Tughluq. The Qutab Minar is notable for being one of the earliest and most prominent examples of Indo-Islamic architecture. It is surrounded by several other ancient and medieval structures and ruins, collectively known as Qutub complex. The complex is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site and is one of the most popular tourist destinations in Delhi. Inspired by the Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan and wishing to surpass it, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, the first Muslim ruler of Delhi, commenced construction of the Qutub Minar in 1193, but could only complete its base. His successor, Iltutmish, added three more storeys and, in 1368, Firuz Shah Tughluq constructed the fifth and the last storey. The Qutub Minar is itself built on the ruins of Lal Kot, the Red Citadel in the city of Dhillika, the capital of the Tomars and the Chauhans, the last Hindu rulers of Delhi. Controversy also surrounds the origins for the name of the tower. Many historians believe that the Qutub Minar was named after the first Turkish sultan, Qutb-ud-din Aibak but others contend that it was named in honour of Qutbuddin Bakhtiar Kaki, a saint from Baghdad who came to live in India and was greatly venerated by Iltutmish. More on en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Qutub_Minar utab Minar going the way of the Leaning Tower of Pisa? Experts are understood to have expressed concern that the monument, which

India New Delhi _D7C1976

India New Delhi _D7C1976
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the , which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times. Qutub Minar, behind the Alai Gate, is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five stage minaret was ordered in 1193 by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak, to exceed the Jam Minaret in Afghanistan, but during his lifetime only the 14.3 meter wide base was completed. The third Sultan, Iltutmish completed the middle three levels, and by 1368 Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq added the fifth level, measuring 2.75 metres diagonally and completing the Minaret to reach 72 metres high. The entire structure is built with of red sandstone bricks with some likely to have been re-used from the ruins of Lal Kot, or the Red Citadel which stood here in the 6th century in the time of the last Chauhan Hindi rulers of Delhi. There are 379 steps leading to the topmost fifth level and each of the levels is separated by a muqarna or stalactite corbel, decorated by Cufic inscriptions from the Koran. Apart from being the most prominent, the Qutub Minar is also probably the best surviving example of the earliest Indo-Islamic architecture. The Alai Gate, on the left, is a domed gateway that functions as the entrance to the Qutub complex was constructed by Ala-ud din Khilji, the first Khilji Sultan of Delhi in 1290. The dominating red engraved sandstone is refined with inlaid white marble, also finely detailed by Turkish craftsmen.

India New Delhi _D7C1980

India New Delhi _D7C1980
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
Detail of the Qutub Minaret in New Delhi, showing the muqarna, or stalactite corbel, between the first and second level. Qutub Minar is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five stage minaret was ordered in 1193 by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, to exceed the Jam Minaret in Afghanistan, but during his lifetime only the 14.3 meter wide base was completed. The third Sultan, Iltutmish completed the middle three levels, and by 1368 Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq added the fifth level, measuring 2.75 metres diagonally and completing the Minaret to reach 72 metres high. The entire structure is built with of red sandstone bricks with some likely to have been re-used from the ruins of Lal Kot, or the Red Citadel which stood here in the 6th century in the time of the last Chauhan Hindi rulers of Delhi. There are 379 steps leading to the topmost fifth level and each of the levels is separated by a muqarna or stalactite corbel, decorated by Cufic inscriptions from the Koran. Apart from being the most prominent, the Qutub Minar is also probably the best surviving example of the earliest Indo-Islamic architecture. The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the Qutub Minar, which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times.

India New Delhi _D7C2003

India New Delhi _D7C2003
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
Excavation work around the Qutub complex in New Delhi continues... The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the , which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times. Qutub Minar, the base of which is visible on the left, is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five stage minaret was ordered in 1193 by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak, to exceed the Jam Minaret in Afghanistan, but during his lifetime only the 14.3 meter wide base was completed. The third Sultan, Iltutmish completed the middle three levels, and by 1368 Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq added the fifth level, measuring 2.75 metres diagonally and completing the Minaret to reach 72 metres high. The entire structure is built with of red sandstone bricks with some likely to have been re-used from the ruins of Lal Kot, or the Red Citadel which stood here in the 6th century in the time of the last Chauhan Hindi rulers of Delhi. There are 379 steps leading to the topmost fifth level and each of the levels is separated by a muqarna or stalactite corbel, decorated by Cufic inscriptions from the Koran. Apart from being the most prominent, the Qutub Minar is also probably the best surviving example of the earliest Indo-Islamic architecture.

India New Delhi _D7C1997

India New Delhi _D7C1997
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
Detail of the Qutub Minaret in New Delhi, showing the Cufic inscriptions at the base of the minaret. Qutub Minar is the tallest brick minaret in the world. The five stage minaret was ordered in 1193 by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutb-ud-din Aibak, to exceed the Jam Minaret in Afghanistan, but during his lifetime only the 14.3 meter wide base was completed. The third Sultan, Iltutmish completed the middle three levels, and by 1368 Sultan Firuz Shah Tughlaq added the fifth level, measuring 2.75 metres diagonally and completing the Minaret to reach 72 metres high. The entire structure is built with of red sandstone bricks with some likely to have been re-used from the ruins of Lal Kot, or the Red Citadel which stood here in the 6th century in the time of the last Chauhan Hindi rulers of Delhi. There are 379 steps leading to the topmost fifth level and each of the levels is separated by a muqarna or stalactite corbel, decorated by Cufic inscriptions from the Koran. Apart from being the most prominent, the Qutub Minar is also probably the best surviving example of the earliest Indo-Islamic architecture. The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the Qutub Minar, which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times.

India New Delhi _D7C2027

India New Delhi _D7C2027
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
Details of Jainist stone carvings inside the remains of the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the , which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times. The foundation of the Delhi Masjid Jame, the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, ('Refuge of Islam') was laid by Qutub-ud-din Aibak in 1193 on the site of Lal Kot Fort. An inscription on the eastern gateway confirms that 27 Jainist temples were destroyed for the construction of the complex, with complete columns being transplanted into the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. This type of iconoclasm is not unique in Indian history, and while the continuous destruction/construction cycle might be seenas religion inspired, it more usually served political motives, as recently occurred in 1992 with the Babri Mosque. Construction and expansion of the mosque continued under the third Sultan, Iltutmish, who replaced the original Hindu masons with Muslim masons which resulted in the addition of Islamic arches to the ones dating back to Qutub's rule. The mosque's ruins that remain today still show the finely detailed masonry and the mix of Hindu figures and Muslim floral forms.

Flying over the Qutub Minar

Flying over the Qutub Minar
Made by DocBudie [ busy :(
Incredible India : a Photographic Tour 2010 2nd Day ~ New Delhi Qutub Minar Located in south Delhi, the Qutub Minar is a major historical monument in Delhi. Set among trees and surrounded by a lush garden, the Qutub Minar is one of the earliest monuments of Muslim rule in India. It is a popular site for tourists visiting India's capital, and is a designated World Heritage Site. Contruction of the minar was ordered by Qutub uddin Aibak in 1199 AD. The Qutub Minar was built to mark the taking over of Delhi by a new dynasty – an Islamic one. The minar is part of a mosque, one of the first to be built in India. The mosque was given the name Quwwat-ul-Islam or “Might of Islam” to mark the start of Muslim rule in Delhi. The mosque and its prominent minar or tower had a dual purpose – it was a place of worship as well as a tower to commemorate a victory. The Qutub Minar marks the introduction of Islamic architecture in India. The monument uses the pointed arch, lattice windows and an Islamic dome - elements that were all new to Indian architecture. The Qutub Minar also brought together a fusion of Hindu and Muslim architectural traditions. It is speculated that while the structure was built to the orders of a Muslim sultan, the work was done by Hindu artisans who left their stamp on the monument.

India New Delhi _D7C2013

India New Delhi _D7C2013
Made by youngrobv (Rob&Ale)
14mm wide angle indulgences... The Qutub complex of New Delhi is best known for the , which was constructed along with the rest of the complex by India's first Muslim ruler, the Sultan of Delhi, Qutub-ud-din Aibak. Construction began in 1193 and continued well into British colonial times. The foundation of the Delhi Masjid Jame, the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque, ('Refuge of Islam') was laid by Qutub-ud-din Aibak in 1193 on the site of Lal Kot Fort. An inscription on the eastern gateway confirms that 27 Jainist temples were destroyed for the construction of the complex, with complete columns being transplanted into the Quwwat ul-Islam Mosque. This type of iconoclasm is not unique in Indian history, and while the continuous destruction/construction cycle might be seenas religion inspired, it more usually served political motives, as recently occurred in 1992 with the Babri Mosque. Construction and expansion of the mosque continued under the third Sultan, Iltutmish, who replaced the original Hindu masons with Muslim masons which resulted in the addition of Islamic arches to the ones dating back to Qutub's rule. The mosque's ruins that remain today still show the finely detailed masonry and the mix of Hindu figures and Muslim floral forms.



Nearest places of interest:

john house
Christian Compound Mehrauli
Quli Khan Tomb
Phool Mandi (Flower Market)
  Imam Zaamin's Tomb
Qutub Minar Masjid
Alai Darwaza Gate
Qutb Minar

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