New York Stock Exchange
The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the "Big Board," is a New York City-based privately-owned stock exchange by the NYSE Group (NYX). It is the largest stock exchange in the world by dollar volume and the second largest by number of companies listed. Its share volume was exceeded by that of NASDAQ during the 1990s, but the total market capitalization of companies listed on the NYSE is five times that of companies listed on NASDAQ. The New York Stock Exchange has a global capitalization of $17.4 trillion, including $7.1 trillion in non-U.S. companies.
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Cities Service Building
Made by Emilio Guerra
Financial District, Lower Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States Summary The former Cities Service Building at 70 Pine Street is a 66-story skyscraper, rising from a trapezoidal site bounded by Pine Street, Cedar Street, and Pearl Street. An icon of the lower Manhattan skyline, the building’s shaft terminates in a slender pinnacle crowned by an illuminated lantern and stainless steel spire. At the time of completion in 1932, this Art Deco style tower was the tallest structure in lower Manhattan, and at 952 feet, the third tallest structure in the world. Commissioned by a major American corporation, it was an expression of the owner’s success, escalating real estate costs, and the current zoning code that required buildings to diminish in mass as they rise. The Cities Service Company was chartered by Henry L. Doherty in 1910, and quickly grew to become one of the largest corporations in the United States, controlling approximately 150 energy firms in 38 states, including numerous oil and power suppliers. In the late 1920s, Doherty made considerable investments in Manhattan real estate, acquiring 60 Wall Street, which he planned to expand and occupy as his headquarters. When two proposals failed to win the Department of Buildings’ approval, the current site was assembled, costing $2 million. Clinton & Russell, Holton & George served as architect, designing a set back tower, clad with white brick, light gray Indiana limestone, and speckled rose-and-black granite. Thomas J. George is thought to have been the lead designer, enriching the lower floors with stylized reliefs that rival any architectural ornamentation created during the Art Deco period in New York City. Of particular interest is the company’s triangular logo, as well as sunflowers, sunbursts and stepped pyramids, which direct the eye upward and recall the shape of the spire. The northeast and southeast portals are the most distinctive entrances, with four-story-tall archways leading to multistory vestibules connecting the first floor and basement lobbies. At the center of both east portals is a limestone model of the Cities Service Building. In a city crowded with new skyscrapers, this unusual sculptural feature illustrated what had become almost impossible to see – the building in its entirety. Doherty’s headquarters incorporated various innovative features, including escalators linking the lower floors, the city’s first double-deck elevators, and private terraces enclosed by steel railings coated with aluminum lacquer. The opening of the building coincided with Doherty’s return as the company’s chief executive and he intended to occupy the crown as his private triplex. When plans were canceled, the uppermost floor was converted to a public observation gallery, with unsurpassed views of New York harbor. Though completed during the early years of the Great Depression, the Cities Service Building was a modest success. Financed through a public stock offering rather than a mortgage, it reportedly achieved profitability by 1936 and was 90% occupied by 1941. The Cities Service Company was renamed CITGO in 1965 and the building was sold to the American International Group in 1976. Following AIG’s financial collapse in 2008 and a subsequent bailout by the U.S. government, this distinctive tower was acquired by Sahn Eagle LLC in 2009. The Cities Service Building is one of lower Manhattan’s most prominent skyscrapers and one of the finest Art Deco style buildings in New York City. DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS Following World War I, high-rise office buildings transformed the lower Manhattan skyline. Built by real estate developers and major American corporations, these skyscrapers were bold expressions of corporate success, escalating real estate costs, and the current set-back zoning regulations. Conceived during the late 1920s, the Cities Service Building was completed at the start of the Great Depression in 1932. A lasting symbol of one early 20th-century company’s rapid growth and accomplishments, at 952 feet this Art Deco style tower was once the third tallest building in the world. Henry L(atham) Doherty and the Cities Service Company The Cities Service Company was chartered in 1910 to “distribute light, heat, and power.” Backed by various New York City investors, it was headed by Henry L. Doherty (18701939), an astute businessman and “self-trained engineer” who held 150 patents. Born in Columbus, Ohio, Doherty managed several Midwestern utility companies before moving east to organize Henry L. Doherty & Company, with substantial investments throughout the United States, Mexico, and Canada. In tandem with Cities Service, Doherty would own “directly or indirectly, a controlling interest in more than 150 subsidiaries,” most of which were involved in oil production or the delivery of gas and electricity. By 1932, Doherty was a multimillionaire and his companies enjoyed record profits, serving 9,000 communities in 38 states and Canada and 600,000 stockholders. Many lawsuits, however, were brought against his billion-dollar corporation during the Depression years and though Doherty reportedly relinquished control of the company in 1935, it was not until his death in 1939 that W. Alton Jones officially succeeded him as chief executive. Doherty held substantial real estate investments, with numerous properties in Florida and New York City. In December 1924, he purchased 60 Wall Street (1903-5, demolished in 1975), where his offices had been since 1906, for $3 million. Designed by Clinton & Russell, this building had an unusual two-part layout, incorporating a 15-story structure on Wall Street linked to a 27-story structure on Pine Street. Doherty owned several additional properties in lower Manhattan, as well as “50,000 square feet of partly improved land” east of Battery Park, where, as early as 1919, he proposed to build “a great business centre, rivaling Wall Street.” It seems likely that Doherty intended to consolidate his workforce at this location but when the project failed to go forward he looked elsewhere, establishing the Pine Street Realty Company by early 1929. With the purchase of 60 Wall Street, Doherty had developed plans to substantially enlarge the structure. Clinton & Russell’s first scheme, presented in March 1927, incorporated a simple slab-like addition of undetermined height. The second plan, in October of the same year, was more ambitious, featuring a 60-story neo-Gothic style tower above a completely redesigned base. When neither scheme won approval from the Department of Buildings, the Pine Street Realty Company (later known as 60 Wall Tower, Inc.) began to purchase parcels on the north side of Pine Street, where the Cities Service Building would ultimately stand. This location had significant advantages. Located close to the center of the financial district, it was also near the Third Avenue elevated railroad which ran along Pearl Street to South Ferry. With mostly low-rise neighbors to the east, the site had great visibility and any high-rise structure built there was destined to become an icon of the lower Manhattan skyline. The 32,000 square-foot site was assembled by purchase and lease during 1929 and 1930, with a total of 247 feet on Pine Street, 247 feet on Cedar Street, and 116 feet on Pearl Street. All of the 23 lots contained three-to-five story structures, masonry buildings that had low property values and could be easily demolished. The estimated cost was $2 million – far less than most comparable downtown sites. Edwin C. Hill, a newspaper writer who authored a congratulatory booklet on the Cities Service Building, claimed: It formed a site of unusual depth and offered attractive and inspirational opportunities to architects. For this a substantial figure has been paid and yet it represented one of the most economical assemblages of real estate in the history of Manhattan Island. It was an optimistic period for Manhattan real estate and several significant skyscrapers were rising in the area, including 1 Wall Street (Voorhees, Gmelin & Walker, 1928-31) and the Manhattan Company Building (H. Craig Severance, Yasuo Matsui, Shreve & Lamb, 1929-30, both are designated New York City Landmarks). By the time the Pine Street Realty Company filed plans with the Department of Buildings (NB 118-30) in May 1930, however, the economic climate had changed measurably. Despite an increasingly pessimistic forecast following the Wall Street crash of October 1929, Doherty persevered, claiming his $7 million tower would be the “first of [a] series of structures which will be erected on four acres of sites controlled by the company in various sections of the financial district.” Of these proposed buildings, however, only Cities Service was built. To accomplish this, an unusual financing method was adopted. Rather than use a conventional mortgage, Henry L. Doherty & Co. issued stock, selling more than $15.7 million in shares to individual investors. This interest-free strategy would allow the company to later describe the project as “financially unique among large New York office buildings.” Clinton & Russell, Holton & George The architect of the Cities Service Building was Clinton & Russell, Holton & George. Founded by Charles W. Clinton (1838-1910) and William Hamilton Russell (1857-1907), this prolific architectural firm was active from 1894 to 1947. Specializing in the design of office buildings and apartment houses, it was responsible for such designated New York City Landmarks as Graham Court (1899-1901), the Broad Exchange Building (1900-02), the Beaver Building (1903-4), and the Apthorp Apartments (1906-8). Following the deaths of Russell and Clinton, the firm kept its name under the leadership of James Hollis Wells (1864-1926), Alfred J.S. Holton, and Thomas J(ohn) George. Wells died in 1926 and the firm became known as Clinton & Russell, Holton & George. Holton (c. 1879-1936) joined the firm around 1897. Born and educated in Ontario, Canada, he was a resident of Brooklyn and a veteran of the First World War, having served in the Office Reserve Corps. George grew up in Rome, New York, and trained as an architect at Cornell University (B.A., 1896), where his thesis explored Italian Renaissance architecture. Following graduation, he moved to New York City and joined Clinton & Russell. Like Holton, he remained with the firm for the rest of his career and served as the chief designer of many prestigious projects. An official biography reported that he was “in charge of almost all of the designs” and was, at the time of his death, described as the “retired senior partner of the architectural firm Clinton & Russell of New York and architect of the Cities Service Building.” In the 1920s, Clinton & Russell were based in lower Manhattan, near many of its clients, at 17 John Street. While most of the firm’s early commissions had been neo-Renaissance style, following the First World War it gradually moved away from classicism, using restrained Moorish, neo-Gothic and Art Deco style details. In particular, two projects anticipate the deisgn of the Cities Service Building. One Cedar Street (aka 104 Maiden Lane, 187-97 Pearl Street), completed on the adjoining block, has almost identical massing and restrained Art Deco details. The latter project, constructed for the New Amsterdam Causality Company at 60 John Street, at the southwest corner of William Street, displays a similarly restrained palette, executed with limestone and granite. Cities Service would be the firm’s last and most important commission. Though Clinton & Russell would continue to operate throughout the Depression years, most of the firm’s work involved refurbishing interiors. Planning the Cities Service Building Thomas J. George is likely to have designed, or supervised the design of the Cities Service Building. Planned as a corporate headquarters and to generate rental income, the massing conforms to the 1916 zoning ordinance, which regulated how most commercial buildings were built in New York City until 1961. Conceived to protect access to air and light in Manhattan’s most crowded districts, this law required buildings to set back in tiers as they rise and to reduce their mass at certain heights. Bulk, consequently, was regulated and above the base diminished in stages, creating wedding-cake-like silhouettes in which the highest floors covered 25 per cent of the lot. At this point, there were no height restrictions and the total height was limited by only economics, technology, and ambition. In the late 1920s, the skyscraper was carefully analyzed by the economist W.C. Clark. He presented his findings in a lecture at the Engineers’ Club (a designated New York City Landmark) in October 1929 – as plans for the Cities Service Building were being drafted. At 63 stories, Clark concluded, a building reaches the “point of maximum economic returns.” This study also encouraged the use of “ingenious traffic arrangements . . . such as double decked cabs.” It seems likely that these recommendations directly shaped the original plan, which George filed with the Department of Buildings six months later as a 63-story office building with “twin deck elevators.” In subsequent months, however, three stories were added and the total height of the structure was increased from 763 to 950 feet (including the spire), surpassing the nearby 927-foot-tall Manhattan Company Building at 40 Wall Street, which was nearing completion. In doing so, Cities Service would become Manhattan’s tallest building below 34th Street. George divided the elevations into three distinct sections. This arrangement conformed to the zoning ordinance and accentuates the vertical ascent of the tower. While the lowest floors are mostly obscured by neighboring buildings, the upper floors can be read as a continuous spire. The base fills the entire parcel, setting back gradually through the midsection, to the 30th floor. Because the site slopes up from east to west, the east elevation, adjoining Pearl Street, has a full basement and begins to set back at the 10th floor, while the west elevation adjoins the Down Town Association (1886-87, 1910-11, a designated New York City Landmark) and sets back at the 12th floor. Many of the shallow setbacks were accessible to tenants and could be used as terraces. At the 31st floor, the slab-like shaft begins, rising in a symmetrical fashion to the 55th floor. The 66th floor contained an observation gallery, crowned by a 27-foot-tall tiered glass lantern, and a 97-foot-tall stainless steel spire, which incorporated a neon beacon that was reportedly “visible for 200 miles at sea and inland.” The upper floors have small footprints and relatively little floor space – especially when the corridors, stairways, and elevators shafts are subtracted. To reduce the area devoted to such necessities, as Clark suggested, the architects employed eight double-deck elevators – the first instance in the United States. According to the Real Estate Record and Builder’s Guide, this feature was “permitted by special provision in the new elevator code” and had “long been awaited by the industry as the solution to the problem of tall building economics.” With fewer elevators shafts, construction costs were reduced and approximately 40,000 additional square feet was made available for lease, with an estimated value of “$84,000 a year in rentals.” Manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company, in Yonkers, New York, each of the units contained a pair of stacked compartments, allowing passengers to enter or exit from two floors simultaneously. When in use, primarily during the morning and evening rush, the upper cabs stopped at the even-numbered floors, and the lower cabs, at odd. This technology attracted considerable media attention and remained in operation until 1972. The Exteriors In mid-to-late 1920s, a new style for corporate skyscrapers emerged and grew popular. Following completion of the neo-Gothic style Woolworth Building (a designated New York City Landmark and Interior) in 1914, many architects looked to the middle ages for aesthetic ideas, embellishing structures with turrets, finials and gargoyles. Historical motifs, however, soon began to lose favor and were replaced by a new decorative vocabulary inspired by contemporary European and American trends. Talbot Hamlin, a professor of architecture at Columbia University, observed in 1932: That name – Modernism – covers inadequately a great number of diverse styles and movements, individual and local, with differing aims … the search for originality, for new forms, a feeling that traditionalism is a bar to creative design. Almost four decades passed before this short-lived aesthetic would be given a stylistic label by the English art historian Bevis Hillier. Distinguished by low decorative reliefs, vivid colors and unusual materials, since the 1960s this style has been commonly called “Art Deco,” suggesting a loose connection to the Paris Exposition des Arts Decoratifs and Industriels of 1925, which helped introduce these aesthetic concepts to a wider audience. Unlike the European avant-garde of the 1920s that promoted man-made materials and industrial production, architects who worked in the Art Deco style placed a high value on craftsmanship. Ornament remained important but was executed with a wide range of materials, from rare imported marbles to the latest industrial metals, such as aluminum. To please tenants and visitors, the most flamboyant details were typically reserved for the entrances and lobby. This is particularly true at the Cities Service Building; where the entrances are quite ornate and the rest of the elevations display considerable decorative restraint. Publicist Edwin C. Hill remarked: Mr. Doherty himself found time to give a great deal of personal attention to the development of the plans . . . Generally speaking, he insisted on dignity with beauty, to the absolute avoidance of the garish, the flamboyant, and the over colorful. To accomplish this goal, mostly light-colored materials were chosen, namely south Indiana limestone for the lowest elevations and four different shades of white-gray face brick, which darken slightly near the top – to increase the contrast of the tower against a bright sky. A striking exception is the polished red-and-black Brazilian granite veneer that extends around the base and continues the vertical expression of the limestone piers. This conspicuous material helps prepare visitors for the sumptuous first floor lobby, which functioned as the main entrance and a shared public space. The first floor lobby has four entrances, two each on Pine Street and Cedar Street. This arrangement allows only the west entrances to be at grade, while tenants using the east entrances must ascend interior stairs. The lobby was intended to function as an extension of the street and contains storefronts in the east, west, and Pine Street halls. These retail spaces face inward and were not accessible from outside. A fifth entrance, on Pearl Street, served the basement lobby. Originally located in the shadow of the noisy elevated railroad, this entrance received a somewhat simpler decorative treatment. On Pine and Cedar Streets, tenants enter through monumental stepped portals. The east portals are centered below the tower and provide entry to handsome multistory vestibules that incorporate stairs to the first floor and basement lobbies. Taller, deeper and somewhat grander than the west portals, which are two stories tall and have revolving doors, these impressive four-story entrances incorporate two sets of three doors, grouped to either side of a prominent limestone pillar. The side walls of each portal, as well as the ceilings, display limestone reliefs with repeating images of the Cities Service logo, a delta or triangle set within a trefoil, as well as other stylized forms. Similar reliefs, with rosettes at center, draw attention to the spandrels between the third and fourth story windows. The center pillars in the east portals serve as pedestals for large “portraits” of the Cities Service Building. Carved in limestone, each almost free-standing sculpture stands about 14 feet tall. Rene P(aul) Chambellan (1893-1958), who designed the figurative reliefs on the aluminum elevator doors in the first floor lobby, was a celebrated architectural modeler and may have played a role in each sculpture’s design. A mostly accurate representation of the building, one can distinguish the various setbacks and windows, and even such details as the building portraits. Since medieval times, architects have occasionally used architectural imagery in their works, for instance, at the entrances to churches where patrons were sometimes depicted holding representations of the structure they sponsored. This idea reappears in the soaring elevator lobby of the 1913 Woolworth Building (a designated New York City Landmark) where merchant F.W. Woolworth is memorably depicted as a grotesque holding a miniature model of the tower. At Cities Service, the limestone portraits celebrated the owner’s lofty status and direct the eye skyward. In addition, these sculptures help people visualize the tower as a whole. This was especially important in lower Manhattan, where streets can be unusually narrow, making it nearly impossible to view a building in its entirety. Other notable New York City structures that incorporate self-referential images include the Fuller Building (lobby floor mosaic), the Chrysler Building (ceiling mural), 500 Fifth Avenue (entrance relief), City Bank-Farmer’s Trust Company (interior grillwork), the Empire State Building (lobby relief), and 30 Rockefeller Plaza (mural). Decorative Metalwork The silvery-white aluminum metalwork was “executed under the supervision of the Parkhurst Organization.” Clif(f) Parkhurst (c. 1885-1965), who began his career following the First World War, was praised by the short-lived, monthly commercial journal Metalcraft as “needing no introduction to the architectural world. He has designed some of the exquisite work in metal in the country.” During this period, evidence of his skill was found in the Shelton Hotel (Arthur Loomis Harmon, 1924), Western Union Building (Voorhees, Gmelin & Walker, 1928-30, a designated New York City Landmark and Interior) and One Wall Street (Voorhees, Gmelin & Walker, 1929-30, a designated New York City Landmark). Relatively little is known about Parkhurst’s career. He was a frequent contributor to Metalcraft, including one of the only known illustrated articles to address the design of the Cities Service Building. Though hardly an impartial observer, he wrote that it was: . . . a structure of restrained modern design which reflects skilful [sic] craftsmanship and the most advanced engineering knowledge . . . The idea of permanency is at once appreciated and the effects sought by the architects have been faithfully reproduced. Aluminum was one of the signature materials of the Art Deco and Moderne styles. Above the various entrance doors are rows of convex aluminum reliefs depicting pairs of butterflies with outstretched wings pecking at sunflowers, a possible allusion to oil production. Other details that were probably designed or executed by Parkhurst include the rope-like enframement that surrounds each portal, the large ventilation grille in front of the air intake chamber on Cedar Street, and the spandrels on the lower floors. Said to be of “unique construction,” these spandrels show “polished arrises on a deplated aluminum field.” An arrise is a sharp edge or ridge, but these forms also suggest frozen fountains, or perhaps more self-referentially, an illuminated spire. Such imagery appeared frequently in 1920s architecture and graphics and can be interpreted as a metaphor for the skyscraper, or perhaps, the city as a whole. The east portals frame four levels of windows. As originally built the lowest group, directly above the doors, contained numerous rows of horizontal glass louvers rather than fixed panes. Parkhurst explained their purpose in Metalcraft: The street doors are especially designed at some of the street entrances as to their operation. The glass louvres (sic) . . . acts as baffles during the operation of this especially designed door. The sash directly behind the louvers opens with the door in dual operation and proves effective in reducing the customary hazard of wind pressure and permits a weather tight fitting of the doors. In a speech presented to the National Association of Bronze, Iron and Wire Manufacturers in October 1930, Parkhurst highlighted the role that specialists, like himself, played in the creation of skyscrapers: “Today, the skyline of many of our great cities bears evidence of our collaborative work and although our part is relatively minor, we really get a thrill out of our work.” Construction Crews began to clear the west half of the site in early 1930. The excavations, which reached a depth of 60 feet, removed more than 100,000 tons of rock and earth. According to early estimates, this portion of the building was scheduled to be completed in May 1931, and the easterly portion – where the tower would rise – by May 1932. The contractor was James Stewart & Company. Founded in 1845, this firm grew to become one of the “so-called ‘big five’ in the field of American building construction,” with offices throughout the United States and abroad. In 1930, Stewart was the nation’s third most active builder, behind George A. Fuller and Marc Eidlitz & Son, with more than $22 million in new contracts. Under senior member A. M. Stewart, it received many important jobs in New York City, erecting such designated Landmarks as Mecca Temple (now City Center, H. P. Knowles with Clinton & Russell, 1922-24), the New York Central Building (1927-29) and the United States Courthouse (1933-36) on Foley Square. For Cities Service, engineer J(ohn) M. Parrish acted as general superintendent of construction. Work commenced in May 1930. By April 1931, the steel framing had reached the 27th floor, and by July 1931, the 59th floor. On average, three floors were added each week. About 600 men were involved in the project, requiring 24,000 tons of steel and 119,000 man hours in which “no fatal injury or lost-time accident was recorded.” The tapered stainless steel spire, rising from the top of the observation gallery, was installed during October 1931. To connect the building to 60 Wall Street, a tunnel was constructed, as well as an enclosed pedestrian bridge at the 16th floor. Completed by February 1932, this mid-air feature served two purposes: it provided direct access between the company’s two buildings and allowed the new tower to adopt a more prestigious Wall Street address. In early 1932, work was described as “rapidly nearing completion” and during subsequent months advertisements for office space were placed in local newspapers. Promoted as “Sixty Wall Tower,” the building was proudly described as “The Aristocrat of Skyscrapers . . . The distinctive beauty of its exterior and interior have been united in a harmonious alliance of its architects, engineers and builders.” A temporary certificate of occupancy was awarded by the Department of Buildings in March 1932 and a permanent one in August 1932. Sixty Wall Tower On May 13, 1932, a formal ceremony was held to celebrate the opening of 60 Wall Tower, corporate headquarters of the Cities Service Company. Like the dedication of the Empire State Building (Shreve, Lamb & Harmon, 1930-31, a designated New York City Landmark and Interior), a year earlier, it provided a welcome moment of optimism during dark economic times. In the past six years, Doherty had been absent from the public eye due to health problems and he used this well-publicized event to mark his 62nd birthday and return as chief executive. Cities Service publicist Hill boasted: No man, not even the first of the Astors, ever had more confidence in the enduring and increasing values of the ground upon which New York City is built than Henry L. Doherty. It is that very confidence which is reflected in Sixty Wall Tower. Into land and building were invested millions at a time when many capitalists and financers could see the future only through glasses smoked by their own fears and apprehensions. The third tallest building in the world is, therefore, the monolith of courage as well as capacity. Approximately 200 business leaders attended the luncheon and ceremony, which included the unveiling of a bronze bust of Doherty, as well as the floodlighting of the spire. In addition, a small mirror on the balcony of the 64th floor was used to transmit his voice via “moon beam power” to radio listeners throughout the world. At 950 feet, the Cities Service Building was higher than the 927-foot Manhattan Company Building at 40 Wall Street, and only the 1,454-foot Empire State Building and the 1,046-foot Chrysler Building stood taller. The top three floors were planned as Doherty’s private apartment and office. Earlier, he had been credited with “starting the pent-house idea” at 26 State Street and was reportedly “listed in city records” as the building’s janitor to overcome restrictions on private use. Despite such plans, Doherty never occupied the triplex and the 66th floor opened as a public observation gallery in July 1932. The 23-by-33 foot solarium featured: special glass to admit the beneficial rays of the sun and is reached by an elevator of unusual design which disappears beneath the platform floor after discharging passengers, thus permitting unobstructed views of the metropolitan area in all directions. Ringed by shallow outdoor terraces, there were open steel railings so that winds would clear the pavement and “nothing obstructs the gaze.” Though some midtown observatories were loftier, such as the 102nd floor of the Empire State Building and the 71st floor of the Chrysler Building, the gallery at Cities Service offered unparalleled panoramic views of New York harbor and remained accessible until at least 1939. From the start, 60 Wall Tower was a modest success. Three thousand employees of the Cities Service Company were reportedly based here, on at least the first seven floors, and in some of the uppermost floors. The larger lower floors, where the clerical staff was mainly located, were linked by six pairs of reversible “moving staircases,” among the earliest installed in an office building. Like the double-deck elevators, this innovative feature was intended to improve circulation and reduce the number of elevator shafts. Manufactured by the Otis Elevator Company, it was reported that the escalators could move 6,000 passengers per hour and that the first six stories could be emptied in ten minutes. Most of the upper floors were rented to law firms that benefited from the convenience of an extensive tenants-only law library on the 29th floor. In 1933, the building was described as “about two-thirds rented, in spite of having to begin business during the Depression.” Though almost a decade would pass before a 90% occupancy rate was reached, because there was no mortgage Cities Service quickly earned a profit, reporting $500,000 income in 1936. An early tenant of some renown was McGovern’s, occupying the seventh floor. Artie McGovern was a former boxer and trainer, whose clients included such athletes as Babe Ruth and well-known businessmen. Previously located on East 42nd Street, the 25,000-square-foot athletic facility incorporated a gymnasium facing Pearl Street, as well as six handball and squash courts, and areas for ping pong and golf. Reportedly, 1,000 men visited McGovern’s each day. Advertisements described it as the “World’s Largest Private Gymnasium.” Recent History Following the Second World War, the Cities Service Company reduced the number of staff in New York City and began to lease many of the lower floors to outside tenants, including the investment firm Merrill Lynch, Pierce, Fenner & Beane, which signed a 25-year lease on ten floors in 1957. Cities Services began to market gasoline under the name CITGO in 1965 and in 1973 it announced plans to move the executive offices to Tulsa, Oklahoma, where six of the company’s operating divisions were based. About 250 employees were involved in the move. Three years later, in May 1976, the building was acquired by an insurance and financial services company, the American International Group (AIG).At this time, the pedestrian bridge at the 16th floor was removed. Three years later, a replacement, located slightly east of the original, was approved by the Board of Estimate. Connecting the 6-7th floors to the 7-8th floors of 72 Wall Street (aka 73-77 Pine Street), this sloping aluminum-clad transverse was completed in 1979. In subsequent decades, the Cities Service Building was sometimes referred to as the American International Building. During the 1990s, the exterior and lobby were refurbished. Following the financial collapse of AIG in 2008 and a subsequent bailout by the U.S. government, the building was sold in August 2009 to Sahn Eagle LLC. Description The Cities Service Building rises on a sloping, trapezoidal parcel bounded by Pine Street, Cedar Street, and Pearl Street. The building consists of an asymmetrical base, a slender tower that rises in a symmetrical manner from the 31st floor, and a faceted spire. The west facade is visible above the seventh floor. Viewed from the east and west, setbacks are symmetrical. The facade is mostly faced with light-colored brick and grayish limestone except for the lower part of the ground floor which is clad with polished red and black granite panels. The brick lightens in color as the elevations rise. Between the third and fourth floors, the spandrels incorporate large rosettes, made of carved limestone or terra cotta. Above the fourth story windows, the spandrels are brick, with two raised vertical bands laid over four horizontal bands. The multiple irregular setbacks vary in height and depth and are enclosed with decorative aluminum railings. The double hung windows are not historic but resemble the originals. Some terraces can be accessed through doors. Historic: Pine Street (south) elevation: eleven bays, two entrances portals, wider east portal projects slightly, slopes down to east. First and second floor: red and black granite facing, aluminum reliefs above doors in both portals, lighting fixtures in east portal, limestone model of building between doors in east portal, aluminum spandrel reliefs between floors, single pane basement windows. Pearl Street (east) elevation: five triple-height bays, ground floor red and black granite base with single pane basement windows, aluminum reliefs between each of the 1st and 2nd story windows, transom windows; entrance to ground floor in center bay, crowned by row of identical aluminum reliefs, aluminum revolving door flanked by operable doors and fixed panes. Cedar Street (north) elevation: twelve bays, red and black granite base with single pane basement windows, aluminum reliefs above doors, two entrance portals, larger east portal with six doors, lighting fixtures, west portal with four doors, flanked by two sets of doors in adjoining bays, loading dock with multi-panel door to right of east portal, aluminum spandrel reliefs between floors Alterations: The one-over-one aluminum sashes are non-historic and are likely to date to the 1990s. Through wall air conditioners have been installed in various places on all four elevations. Pine Street elevation: access ramp with aluminum railing, brown metal plaque to right of west entrance portal, windows replaced by horizontal metal louvers in tower and on lower floors, transoms in east portal, single pane windows and aluminum panel at base near Pearl Street, security camera in bay closest to Pearl Street, two-level aluminum footbridge with single pane glazing to east of east portal and extending over Pine Street. Pearl Street (south) elevation: basement, silver marquee above recessed entrance to right of center bay, silver frame notice board, silver lettering for “The Captain’s Ketch.” Cedar Street (north) elevation: 1st floor, center bays, infill masonry and back painted glass; various floors, horizontal metal louvers; 31st floor, machinery on west roof West elevation: machinery on “shoulder” of 31st floor, north side of 55th floor terrace, 63rd floor terrace. - From the 2011 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report
New York Stock Exchange
Made by Emilio Guerra
Financial District, Lower Manhattan The New York Stock Exchange Building has been the home of the nation's principal securities market since 1903, the year of its completion. As a financial institution, the New York Stock Exchange has played a central role in American economic development. The building, designed by George B. Post, one of America's most prominent 19th-century architects, symbolizes the strength and security of the nation's financial community and the position of New York as its center. The design with its giant portico, colonnades, and sculpture imparts a sense of austerity and massiveness coupled with security, in keeping with the wishes of the clients. The building Continues to create a powerful presence for the Exchange in Mew York City and in the nation. History of the New York Stock Exchange New York City has long served as a financial market. Security transactions in the city may date back as far as 1725 when wheat, tobacco, and slaves, as well as securities were bought and sold in an auction market at the foot of Wall Street.1 From this time on, Wall Street remained the locus of financial activity in the city. In 1792 stock dealers and auctioneers were meeting each weekday noon at 22 Wall Street; according to tradition, at about the same time brokers began meeting under an old buttonwood tree at 68 Wall Street. This activity coincided with creation of the federal government system under the United States Constitution; speculation in Revolutionary War bonds and First Bank of the United States stock were the major transactions. By the end of 1792, security brokers had signed the Buttonwood Tree Agreement, leading to the formal organization of what was to become the New York Stock Exchange. The brokers made their first indoor headquarters at the newly-built Tontine Coffee House at the corner of Wall and Water streets in 1793. In 1817, after adopting a new name, the New York Stock and Exchange Board, and writing a new constitution that brought new regularity to securities trading and made the board an exclusive organization, the members moved their offices to 40 Wall Street. The New York Stock and Exchange Board remained there until 1819; following this time the Exchange Board moved three times before settling into a somewhat permanent home at the Merchants' Exchange Building in 1827, staying there until a fire in 1835 destroyed the building. Despite the loss of its headquarters and the effects of the Panic of 1836-37, the Exchange Board endured. Temporary sites served until the Exchange Board moved into the Second Merchants' Exchange in 1842, remaining until 1854. The Cotton Exchange Building was headquarters in 1854-56 and the lord's Court Building served from 1856 to 1865, when the Exchange finally located on the present Broad Street site. By the middle of the 19th century, New York had eclipsed Philadelphia as the financial center of the nation, and the Exchange Board had developed into the nation's principal securities market. The Civil War was particularly beneficial for the prosperity of the Board as the speculative market grew dramatically. The Board adopted its present name, the New York Stock Exchange, in January 1863, purchased land for a new building that October, and moved into the completed building on Broad Street in December 1865. The period immediately after the Civil War saw an era of rapid growth for the United States with the settlement of the West, the building of the railroads, and the development of mass production techniques in manufacturing. The Exchange expanded with the economy, aided by such technological advances as the electric stock ticker (1867) and the telephone (1878) which linked the trading floor with brokers' offices and their customers. Although prosperity was interspersed with periods of national financial panic, the Exchange remained solvent. As the nation recovered from the Panic of 1893, the Exchange continued to grow. Annual securities sales volume rose to 265 million shares in 1901. Government investigations of the Exchange in 1909 and 1912, helped lead to the passage of the Federal Reserve Act of 19 13. The beginning of World War I led to further difficulties as European investors sold their American stocks to raise cash. Following the war the Stock Exchange entered a great period of growth and prosperity arising from several factors: the United States' emergence as unquestionably the strongest country in the world and the possessor of an incomparable production system; an extensive U.S. foreign loan policy that made America a great creditor nation; the government's pro-business posture; the continuing growth and development of new industries; and the 'easy money' policy that the Federal Reserve banks adopted in 1927.The public entered the market in great numbers, and common stock trading soared. The Great Crash on October 29, 1929, brought a dramatic end to this speculative period, helping to trigger the Great Depression. Senate investigations in 1933-34 of the Stock Exchange and general securities market practices resulted in legislation subjecting all stock exchanges to extensive government control. While this marked the beginning of a period of controlled capitalism, the signlficance of the New York Stock Exchange was not diminished during World War II it gained supremacy as the major institution of the world's major financial center as America became the world's most powerful nation. The position that the New York Stock Exchange gained early in the 19th century as the nation's principal securities market continues to be retained. The Stock Exchange Building and Its Architect The construction of the New York Stock Exchange Building coincided with the renewed prosperity of the turn of the century. The old Broad Street building was inadequate, and additional space was required. Several of the best-known architects of the city were asked to participate in a competition, the program of which was prepared with the assistance of Professor William Ware of Columbia University and Charles W. Clinton of Clinton & Russell. George B. Post, one of America's most prominent 19th-century architects was selected to design the new building. Demolition of the old building began in May 1901, the business of the Exchange relocating temporarily to the Produce Exchange Building; the cornerstone of the new building was laid on September 9, 1901; and the new building was occupied on April 22, 1903. George Browne Post (1837-1913) was born in New York City, educated at Churchill's School, and New York University, graduating as 3. civil engineer in 1858. Working in the office of Richard Morris ^-^Hunt until 1860, he formed a partnership with Charles D. Gambrill. Establishing his own practice in 1868, he soon made a reputation as one of the two or three architects in the vanguard of skeleton construction in commercial architecture. Winston Weisman writes, His career started in a most dramatic fashion with participation in the conception of the first skyscraper, or elevator building, the Equitable [New York, with Arthur Gilman and Edward Kendall, 1868-70], and was followed by the taller Western Union [New York, 1873-75] His Mills Building [New York, 1881-83] was the first modern office building, his Produce Exchange [New York, 1881-85] a magnificent achievement in architectural engineering and utilitarian design. He soon won the admiration and acclaim of critic and client alike.in addition to the Produce Exchange, Post also designed the Cotton Exchange Building, New York (1883-85), and the Montreal Stock Exchange Building, demonstrating his success with this building type. By the beginning of the 20th century Post had both the experience and the prestige to take on such a challenging commission as the New York Stock Exchange Building. Post's Roman-inspired neo-classical design replaced the Stock Exchange's Second Empire building of 1863-65. By the end of the 19th century, the classical idiom had established itself as the mode for financial institutions. Its vocabulary was seen to imbue a building with an austerity and massiveness which were to symbolize the security and strength of the institution. In the Stock Exchange commission style took on a crucial programmatic meaning for the client. Post's use of classical sources earlier in his career, offer interesting precedents for his Stock Exchange design. The upper level of the main facade in Post's compeition drawing for the Dry Dock Savings Bank (1873) is very close in spirit to the main facade of the New York Stock Exchange. A colossal order topped by a pediment with an attic level above and a balustraded basement-Like level below is emp oyed as the crowning motif on the Dry Dock Savings Bank; in the Stock Exchange Post incorporates the entire facade into this motif. The use of a pediment crowning at colossal order appears again in Post's World or Pulitzer Building (1889-90). Here Post employs what is essentially a temple front to clothe the exterior of the building, placing fenestration in between the columns, thereby forming one large window or screen. Post's Manufacturers and Liberal Arts Building at the Chicago World's Columbian Exposition (1893) displayed both his engineering talents and his ability to use a classical vocabulary on a very large scale. The Bank of Pittsburgh of the following year is also defined by a temple front. In this building the pediment is supported by colossal columns, forming a portico. The pediment with figural sculpture illustrates Post's interest in orchestrating sculpture and architecture together in a way that offers variety and invention to his facades while enhancing their stylistic integrity. Post's design and engineering talents were both required to meet the demands of the new Stock Exchange Building. According to one contemporary account, the improvements demanded by the brokers with one accord were: more space, more facility and convenience for the transaction of business, more light upon the Board Room [trading] floor, and better ventilation. Unless these improvements were affected to a very marked degree in the new building, it was a foregone conclusion that the latter would prove a mammoth failure regardless of other qualities. The problem was further complicated by the difficulties of the site. The lot was irregularly contoured, located on a hill rising to the north and northwest; the streets bounding the lot were at disparate levels because of the irregular contour; and subsoil conditions were peculiar. Moreover, the great safe deposit vault had to be safely placed in the interior. Post's winning design successfully met the challenges of program and site. Especially praised were the two great facades on Broad Street and New Street. Montgomery Schuyler wrote, It was a very bold, but also a very just thing to do to make the whole front into this single sash frame, to use colossal Corinthian columns as the mullions of an opening embracing the whole elevation. P.C. Stuart commended the facades as fulfilling] to a remarkable degree the practical requirements of lighting,. . .aesthetically they were no less successful, the unity of their design expressing the single great room within in a way that could not be misunderstood by any intelligent observer. An important element of the building is the figural sculpture, designed by John Qunicy Adams Ward (1830-1910) and executed by Paul Wayland Bartlett (1865-1925) placed in the pediment on the Broad Street facade.ward was one of America's most renowned 19th-century °culptors and especially commended for his bronze portrait statues of notable Americans. Bartlett was a promising young sculptor who later designed similar figural groups for the House of Representatives wing of the U.S. Capitol (1909) and the New York Public library (1915). Ward's composition was designed in 1903 as the building was nearing completion, but the marble figures were not actually carved until 1908-09. They depict integrity Protecting the Works of Mm. Integrity is a female figure with outstretched arms accompanied by two children. To her right are a mechanic and his helper depicting Motive Power and figures depicting Scientific and Mechanical Appliances. To her left are a farmer and his wife depicting Agriculture and figures depicting Mining. Wayne Craven has described the iconography as thoroughly American; its subjects are the sources of 19th-century American prosperity and in turn the prosperity of the New York Stock Exchange. The style of the figures is classical--in contrast to Ward's more usual naturalistic style--in keeping with the symmetrical and severe classical nature of Post's design.^^ Description The New York Stock Exchange Building occupies a midblock site south of Wall Street which extends through the block from Broad Street to New Street. Because of the width of Broad Street, that' facade may be seen to better advantage, and it is the dominant one in the composition. This facade, executed in marble, is carefully designed to present a massive, austere, and symmetrical effect, yet to mitigate the irregularities of the site. The major portion of the facade is organized into the dominant portico. This is set on a two-story podium with a granite water table, organized into seven bays, which varies in height with the slope of the street. A cornerstone is inscribed MCMI. At street level are seven flat-arched openings, five with doors and two center ones which are blind. Each opening has a lintel adorned with an elaborate fruit and flower swag and is surmounted by a handsome balustraded balcony carried on console brackets. Round-arched window openings with oak-leaf adorned bracketed keystones rise behind the balconies. The portico above is formed by six colossal fluted Corinthian columns, 52-1/2 feet high, flanked by unfluted Corinthian pilasters. Behind the colonnade is the much-praised glass curtain wall, measuring 96 feet wide and 50 feet high, placed to light the trading floor. Wrought-iron balustrades are placed between the columns. The glass panes of the curtain wall are framed in dark bronze. The columns continue up to an entablature with a frieze with leaves and flowers bearing the inscription New York Stock Exchange. The pediment above is surrounded by a dentilled and modillioned cornice with an acanthus leave band in the rake of the pediment. The pediment opening is filled by Ward's sculptural group. The marble facing continuing up beyond the pediment is set in large panels. To the south of the portico is a relatively narrow bay extending the height of the Broad Street facade. This indicates the presence of an entrance lobby and stairway which were designed to provide access to offices adjacent to the major trading rooms. Because of the constraints of the site. Post found it more expeditious to create this asymmetrical arrangement. At street level a large double-height arched opening contains an entrance flanked by pilasters with Ionic capitals with swags. The lintel above the entrance is inscribed Stock Exchange. A balustraded balcony above sets off the arch with its swag and cornucopia-adorned bracketed keystone. The doors themselves have been changed, and the original window ^t the second level has been removed and the opening filled in. Above the arch are simple paired window openings rising the height of the bay. Those at the third floor level are now blind. The entire Broad Street facade is surmounted by a shallow cornice composed of an egg and dart molding and regularly spaced carved lions heads, setting off a balustraded parapet. The New Street facade, while simpler, is a complementary part of the design, and its composition is related to the Broad Street facade. It too has a two-story podium with a granite water table, which varies in height with the slope of the street, but here the marble facing is rusticated instead of smooth. There are seven round-arched window openings, the northernmost above a service entrance. This facade is also dominated by a Corinthian colonnade above the podium, but the columns are unfluted. Smooth and rusticated Corinthian pilasters flank the colonnade. The glass curtain wall with bronze-framed panes behind the colonnade was also placed to light the trading floor. Wrought-iron balusters are placed at the base of the curtain wall between the columns. Above an entablature with a paneled frieze is a two-story attic level with double-height windows flanked by pilasters. Wrought-iron balconies mark the separation between the floor levels. A simple cornice surmounts the entire New Street facade. Conclusion The New York Stock Exchange continued to expand its facilities after Post's building was completed in 1903, building the 23-story building at 11 Wall street to the designs of Trowbridge & Livingston in 1922, and also moving into the building at 20 Broad Street constructed in 1954. Neither of these two later buildings is a part of this designation. Today Post's design continues to impart a sense of,austerity and massiveness coupled with security, in keeping with the original wishes of the Stock Exchange. The building, still the symbol of one this country's most important financial institutions, creates a powerful presence for the Exchange in New York City and in the nation. - From the 1985 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report
The revolution will not be televised
Made by freestylee
Occupy Wall Street has recently come into the media spotlight, not because of our political message, but because certain high-ranking members of the NYPD punched, threw, and stepped on peaceful marchers. Arrestees were handcuffed so tight their hands turned blue. Many of these people have yet to regain feeling in their extremities. A senior police officer infamously forced women into pens and maced them at point-blank range. While we vehemently condemn these abuses of power, we urge all who read this to remain focused on our intended message. Abuse of power is abuse of power. Whether perpetrated by Wall Street bankers or members of the NYPD, it is the duty of all citizens to oppose injustice. We condemn the actions of unprofessional police who used excessive force in subduing a peaceful march. But we are foremost here to oppose the growing power of the ruling class. Let us also be clear that, when approached as individuals, members of the NYPD have expressed solidarity with our cause. It has been inspiring to receive this support. Over these thirteen days, we have learned that no one supports corporations’ disproportionate influence in the political sphere. We have learned that no one is in favor of evicting struggling families to the street while banks continue to profit. No one, that is, except the corporations and banks. We urge members of the NYPD to remain in solidarity with our cause. These men and women could lose their pensions and benefits during the next round of budget cuts. We ask that members of the NYPD treat all peaceful human beings with respect and care. This will be a great step towards reclaiming power for the working class. Those who profit off the suffering of others will held accountable. We are the 99%, and we are too big to fail. vimeo.com/29906321 Welcome to OCCUPY TOGETHER, an unofficial hub for all of the events springing up across the country in solidarity with Occupy Wall St. As we have followed the news on facebook, twitter, and the various live feeds across the internet, we felt compelled to build a site that would help spread the word as more protests organize across the country. We hope to provide people with information about events that are organizing, ongoing, and building across the U.S. as we, the 99%, take action against the greed and corruption of the 1%. We will try our best to provide you with the most accurate information possible. However, we are just a few volunteers and errors are bound to occur. Please be patient as we get this site off the ground and populated and please contact us if you have any info on new events, corrections, or suggestions for this site. You can contact us at info[at]occupytogether[dot]org. OCCUPY TOGETHER www.occupytogether.org/
Made by Gillender
New York Gillender Building, behind the Trinity Church. In 1909 the Financial District experienced a rapid series of land acquisitions by financial institutions. The Bankers Trust Company joined the process after Bank of Montreal, Fourth National Bank and Germania Insurance acquired their properties on Wall and Nassau Streets. Bankers Trust, established in 1902, had been a tenant at Gillender Building for six years and their choice of site was motivated by its location near the New York Stock Exchange. The company, with J. P. Morgan on the board, grew rapidly and intended to land itself permanently in the vortex of America's financial life. In July 1909 Bankers Trust signed a long-term lease agreement with the Sampson family, owners of the Stevens Building; lease was preferred to purchase due to high price of Wall Street land. Located on the same Wall-Nassau block as the Gillender Building, the L-shaped, seven-story Stevens Building wrapped around it and possessed far longer facades on both Wall and Nassau Streets. Initially the press reported that Bankers Trust planned to build a 16-story office building wrapping around the Gillender Building, with the two bottom floors outfitted to be one of the finest banking rooms in the city.Later it was disclosed that they had been negotiating purchase of Gillender Building since April 1909; the deal would have consolidated enough Wall Street land for a new tower with 94 feet (29 m) frontage facing Wall Street and 102 feet (31 m) on Nassau Street. In December 1909 The New York Times reported a new record set: The Manhattan Trust Company, a bank connected to Bankers Trust through common control by J. P. Morgan, acquired the Gillender Building from Helen Gillender Asinari, paying approximately $1,500,000 for the property occupying 1,825 square feet (169.5 m2), or $822 for a square foot of Manhattan land that was worth $55,000 sixty years earlier. Negotiations were in progress since April 1909 and the sale was virtually closed in November. January 2, 1910 the press reported that the Manhattan Trust has resold the building; Bankers Trust, the new owner, completed consolidation of a large corner property. By April 1910 final cash price paid to Manhattan Trust was adjusted to $1,250,000; in exchange for the $250,000 difference, the Manhattan Trust retained long-term lease rights for the ground floor and other space in the building. This brought nominal cash price per foot on par or below the earlier record ($700 per square foot for a lot on the corner of Wall Street and Broadway). Contemporaries agreed that the Manhattan Trust and Bankers Trust acted in accord and that the latter targeted Gillender Building from the start. Bankers Trust absorbed Manhattan Trust Company in February 1912.
Made by brian glanz
They went neoclassical down on Broad Street just over a century ago, building this version of the NYSE to house future growth and represent America's financial preeminence. The façade describes that America's wealth is derived of the common citizen's hard work. The Corinthian capitals peaking out over a massive American flag top off columns, of course. All of this architecturally suggests that the building is open to the public, and though not governmental that it is a public institution. This massive flag hides the columns and what they stand for, it represents that fear, suspicion, and private governance have become more powerful than public access in the wake of the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Down on The Street, oversized men holding oversized guns glare if you stand to snap a photo. The public is no longer welcome. MSNBC published a nonpartisan analysis of U.S. President George W. Bush's 70 appearances on the campaign trail during the Fall of 2003. All 70 times Bush traveled were to support Republican candidates. All the President's travel is paid for by U.S. taxpayers and is, of course, expensive. It's one thing that a majority of Americans feel Bush is out of touch, but I was surprised to learn that not a single event with President Bush has been open to the public. The President and his party enjoyed his 70-event campaign tour, funded by taxpayer money, while the public was not even once welcome to attend. Bush lacked the courage to meet any American who had not made a large donation to a Republican campaign. What could the President do differently, even more than opening some events to the public when he is traveling with public money? As President of the United States, Bush could take the opportunity of a campaign season to hold an event at a high school with students of near-voting age, or at a college campus to encourage young voter turn-out. Bush could register a few people to vote, demonstrating the President's service to the American people as steward of our democracy. We need a President and a government able to serve the people above politics. We do need politics, and we do need debates, but we need for all our politics and all our debates and all our great institutions to be open, not only to the rich but to all of us. We need to not allow our government or the wealthy in our society to hide behind our flag; we need to proudly be the free and equal people that flag stands for.
999 = 666 = mark of the beast
Made by freestylee
If you're not rich 'blame yourself' - Herman Cain The arrogant Republican presidential candidate Herman Cain insisted in an interview on the Wall Street Journal show Big Interview that the Occupy Wall Street demonstrations spreading across the country were being orchestrated to help President Obama. He is either smoking something that is altering his brain waves or naturally loosing his mind. This guy also talked about his 999 tax plan for the future. This guy is an outstanding deception artist who is also loosing his mind, because it is not difficult to see how easily this 999 tax plan can easily transform into the 666 mark of the beast tax plan. if these guys were not so heavily embedded in Wall Street this would be considered a big joke. Unfortunately you have to take him seriously because his Republican friends are. Here is a video of the interview www.youtube.com/watch?v=zPiSzCDChX4 Who is Herman Cain? Herman Cain (born December 13, 1945) is an American businessman, syndicated columnist, and radio host from Georgia. He is the former chairman and CEO of Godfather's Pizza and a former deputy chairman (1992–94) and chairman (1995–96) of the board of directors of the Federal Reserve Bank of Kansas City. Before his business career he worked as a mathematician in ballistics as a civilian employee of the United States Navy. He lives in the Atlanta suburbs, where he also serves as a minister at Antioch Baptist Church North. Please note carefully that he is a former board member of the Kansas City Federal Reserve, a deceptive financial organization passing itself off as a government institution. The federal Reserver or the Feds is the Bankers Bank and the foundation on which the Wall Street steals our money. Herman is a representative of the very people who cause the massive global crisis we face today. Now do you get the picture my friends. Can you see why he despise the Occupy Wall Street protesters? If you do not know the significant of the number 666.. check this! The Number of the Beast (Greek: Άριθμὸν τοῦ θηρίου, Arithmon tou Thēriou) is a concept from the Book of Revelation of the New Testament of the Christian Bible, relating to the figure of The Beast. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Number_of_the_Beast
Made by ifotog, Queen of Manhattan Street Photography
The origin of the NYSE can be traced to May 17, 1792, when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by 24 stock brokers outside of 68 Wall Street in New York under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street. On March 8, 1817, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed itself the New York Stock & Exchange Board. Anthony Stockholm was elected the Exchange's first president (for other presidents, see List of presidents of the New York Stock Exchange). The first central location of the Exchange was a room, rented in 1817 for $200 a month, located at 40 Wall Street. After that location was destroyed in the Great Fire of New York (1835), the Exchange moved to a temporary headquarters. In 1863, the New York Stock & Exchange Board changed to its current name, the New York Stock Exchange. In 1865, the Exchange moved to 10-12 Broad Street. The volume of stocks traded increased sixfold in the years between 1896 and 1901, and a larger space was required to conduct business in the expanding marketplace. Eight New York City architects were invited to participate in a design competition for a new building; ultimately, the Exchange selected the neoclassic design submitted by architect George B. Post. Demolition of the Exchange building at 10 Broad Street, and adjacent buildings, started on May 10, 1901. The new building, located at 18 Broad Street, cost $4 million and opened on April 22, 1903. The trading floor, at 109 x 140 feet (33 x 42.5 m), was one of the largest volumes of space in the city at the time, and had a skylight set into a 72-foot (22 m)-high ceiling. The main façade of the building features six tall Corinthian capitals, topped by a marble sculpture by John Quincy Adams Ward, called “Integrity Protecting the Works of Man”. The building was listed as a National Historic Landmark and added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 2, 1978. -Wikipedia
Green is Good!
Made by RBudhu
Apologies to Michael Douglas The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) is a stock exchange located at 11 Wall Street in lower Manhattan, New York City, USA. It is the world's largest stock exchange by market capitalization of its listed companies at US$12.25 trillion as of May 2010. Average daily trading value was approximately US$153 billion in 2008. The NYSE is operated by NYSE Euronext, which was formed by the NYSE's 2007 merger with the fully electronic stock exchange Euronext. The NYSE trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street and is composed of four rooms used for the facilitation of trading. A fifth trading room, located at 30 Broad Street, was closed in February 2007. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street, between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978, as was the 11 Wall Street building. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_York_Stock_Exchange
Wall Street - New York
Made by Vasileios Filis - ΒΦ
Χρηματιστήριο Νέας Υόρκης Don't Dream It's Over There is freedom within, there is freedom without Try to catch the deluge in a paper cup There's a battle ahead, many battles are lost But you'll never see the end of the road While you're traveling with me Hey now, hey now Don't dream it's over Hey now, hey now When the world comes in They come, they come To build a wall between us We know they won't win Now I'm towing my car, there's a hole in the roof My possessions are causing me suspicion but there's no proof In the paper today tales of war and of waste But you turn right over to the T.V. page Now I'm walking again to the beat of a drum And I'm counting the steps to the door of your heart Only shadows ahead barely clearing the roof Get to know the feeling of liberation and relief Hey now, hey now Don't dream it's over Hey now, hey now When the world comes in They come, they come To build a wall between us Don't ever let them win
Made by anadelmann
The eyes of the world are on the United States of America. When I came to the U.S.A. I thought it would be interesting to experience presidential elections and now I find that for various reasons (including the economic crisis) the worldwide interest in the elections is stronger than ever before. This is why I pulled this picture to the front. It combines the Star Spangled Banner as one of THE symbols of this great country with the New York Stock Exchange, THE symbol for the economic power of the U.S.A. in the world. I hope all my American friends are using their right to vote and as one of my contacts () wrote: Remember, it's not so much about who's running as it is about showing you care. Democracies don't govern themselves, you know. On our first trip to NYC after our move to NJ we passed the New York Stock Exchange and I couldn't resist taking a picture of that giant Star Spangled Banner in front of it.
Made by freestylee
The deepening financial crisis, which is undermining the government's rescue efforts so far, is prompting federal officials to revisit its original bailout measures. These include taking toxic assets off institutions' balance sheets by moving them into a so-called bad bank, according to published reports. money.cnn.com/2009/01/16/news/economy/Tarp_take2/index.htm If there's one corporate honcho who's emerging as the poster boy for all the varied Wall Street sins that the financial crisis has exposed -- not just greed, but callousness, obliviousness and general incompetence -- its Merrill Lynch's former CEO John Thain. tpmmuckraker.talkingpointsmemo.com/2009/01/john_thains_to...
NYC - Financial District - NYSE
Made by wallyg
This marble fronted building has been the home of America's principal securities market since 1903. The New York Stock Exchange, dates back to 1792, when stock dealers met under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street, had been housed at a numer of sites before it moved into a building by John Kellum at 12 Broad Street in 1865. The building was enlarged in 1880-81 by James Renwick, Jr., and eventually replaced by the current structure, whose moumental Corinthian columns support a pediment containing an allegorical sculpture ensemble entitled Integrity Protecting the Works of Man, designed by John Quincy Adams Ward and executed by Paul Wayland Bartlett. The New York Stock Exchange was designated a landmark by the New York City Landmarks Preservation Commission in 1985. National Historic Register #78001877
Christmas on Wall Street
Made by hbomb1947 the turnstile-jumper
View large and on black. Happy holidays everyone! The view here is from the steps of Federal Hall, looking across Wall Street and south (sort of) on Broad Street. The neoclassical building on the right, whose illuminated columns form an American flag, is the New York Stock Exchange; the original portion of this edifice, including the facade with its Corinthian columns, was designed by George B. Post. The building, which opened in 1903, is a National Historic Landmark, and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Taken with an Olympus E-510. EXIF information: shutter 2.5 sec; f22; iso 400
The New York Stock Exchange
Made by ifotog, Queen of Manhattan Street Photography
ifotog.smugmug.com/photos/256638634_S7F8Q-L.jpg The New York Stock Exchange building opened at 18 Broad Street on April 22, 1903 at a cost of $4 million. The trading floor was one of the largest volumes of space in the city at the time at 109 x 140 feet (33 x 42.5 m) with a skylight set into a 72-foot (22 m) high ceiling. The main façade of the building features marble sculpture by John Quincy Adams Ward in the pediment, above six tall Corinthian capitals, called “Integrity Protecting the Works of Man”. The building was listed as a National Historic Landmark and added to the National Register of Historic Places on June 2, 1978.
Federal Hall, NYC
Made by ifotog, Queen of Manhattan Street Photography
View On Black Federal Hall, once located at 26 Wall Street in New York City, was the first capitol of the United States. The building was demolished in the 19th century and replaced by the current structure, the first United States Customs House. The building is now operated by the National Park Service as the Federal Hall National Memorial, a museum that commemorates the earlier structure. The building was remodeled and enlarged following the American Revolution under the direction of Pierre Charles L'Enfant.
Lunch Break at Federal Hall National Memorial
Made by Gary Burke.
A bronze statue of George Washington welcomes visitors to historic Federal Hall on Wall Street. It is located on the site of Washington's swearing in to the United States presidency in 1789. The present building was erected in 1834-1842 to house the United States Custom House and went under extensive renovation in 2004. It is one of the best examples of classical architecture surviving in the city. Today, it holds an interactive exhibition relating to the United States Constitution. A copy of the Bill of Rights is also on display
Made by EricRP
New York - June 2008 WALL STREET Is a street in lower Manhattan, New York City, USA. It runs east from Broadway downhill to South Street on the East River, through the historical center of the Financial District. Wall Street was the first permanent home of the New York Stock Exchange; over time Wall Street became the name of the surrounding geographic neighborhood. Wall Street is also shorthand (or a metonym) for influential financial interests in the U.S. as well as for the financial industry in the New York City area.
Morgan Bought Earthquake Machine for 1.5 million after Tunguska
Made by Gillender
In the 1930s, Tesla revived the idea of tele-geodynamics to create small, realtively harmless tremors to relieve stress, rather than having to wait in fear for nature to take it's course. Perhaps this idea did not remain the idle speculation of a scientist whose star had never been on the ascendant since the turn of the century, and we occasionally experience the devious machinations of invisible earthquake merchants at the behest of the unseen hands who wish to experiment on and control the populace.
Wall Street Protest 4
Made by Alexander H.M. Cascone
These people have proven that they can't be trusted with our money. I don't want to pay so that those responsible for this can maintain their opulent lifestyle. Let's spend less money, and take the time to create a policy which will serve the average citizen and not the super-rich. No more bail, send their ass to jail! I know they won't go to jail, but let's talk some kind of punitive action.
New York Stock Exchange
Made by Gary Burke.
The New York Stock Exchange building at 18 Broad Street opened to fanfare and festivity on April 22, 1903. It was recognized from the first as an example of masterful architecture. The six massive Corinthian columns across its Broad Street entrance impart a feeling of substance and stability and, to many, it seems the very embodiment of the nation’s growth and prosperity.
mae - new york stock exchange
Mae passando em frente aa bolsa de valores de NY...New York City
An Englishman and his Camera in New York Part 10
I hit Wall Street, and admire the New York Stock Exchange....Wall Street New York Stock Exchange Finance Money Commerce Tourist America Big Apple Landmark
NYC in Pictures
Square Park, the New York Stock Exchange, looking down Wall Street towards Trinity Church, an eagle statue in Battery Park, the New York Water Taxi navigating
WTC June visit 2001
, we were in New York City on business. Later in the afternoon we went to Wall Street, intent on taking the NY Stock Exchange tour. But
8 New York minutes
the city, containing the stock exchange on Wall Street and the headquarters of the United Nations. Former name (until 1664) New Amsterdam....NYC
ARCHITECTURE - Louis Sullivan -Chicago Stock Exange stairs
Sullivan from the demolished Chicago Stock Exchange Building, in exibition at the Metropolitan Museum in New York City....architecture chicago stock exchange louis sullivan metropolitan
CAN AKIN - NEW YORK
New York'un Manhattan bölümünde yer alır. New York borsası (New York Stock Exchange) burada bulunmaktadır. Ünlü Özgürlük Abidesi (Statue of Liberty) New
07 Location: New York City, New York Highways: Broad Street, Wall Street Type: Travel Key Words: Federal Hall Trinity Church Stock Exchange Speed:
Wall Street NYSE and Federal Hall
Title says it all....new york city wall street federal hall broad stock exchange nyse george washington statue inauguration first president
Re: Pledge Challenge & Lords Prayer
pledge response...pledge flag america patriot american usa new york stock exchange
Trader argentina visita el NASDAQ
la sede del NASDAQ de Times Square de New York el 7 de abril de 2007....NASDAQ Stock Exchange New York Times Square Maslaton Yugoslava
Nearest places of interest:
|Site of New Amsterdam|
26 Broadway - Former Headquarters of the Standard Oil Company
Downtown by Philippe Starck
25 Broad Street - Luxury Condominiums
|Federal Hall National Memorial|
Bank of New York Building
Canyon of Heroes
World Trade ..|
New York City